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OdgovorNapisal/-a Hinko_Gnito » 26.11.08 17:38:18

ARAB PHILOSOPHY:

@ Muslim Philosophy;
@ diafrica.org;
@ New Advent;
@ Jewish Encyclopedia;
@ Ontology. A Resource Guide for Philosophers

History Philosophy Informative:
634-654: conquered Syria, Egypt, Iraq, Persia;
711-759: conquered Iberian Peninsula;
744-750: civil war, Abasids win, Umayyads lose (their royal line continiued in
Iberia);
762: Abasid caliph Mansur founded Baghdad;
830: Caliph Al-Ma'mun established 'House of Wisdom', scholars of this
institution were mainly non-Islamic (Christians, Sabians, Zoroastrians,
Manicheans); on the other side Al-Ma'mun orderes persecutions of these non-
Islamic religions;
847: political victory of Hanbalite hadith school against Mutazilite
school; rational theology becomes marginalized;
850-900: virtualy all Aristotle texts were available; on the contrary:
Aristotle was interpreted as Neo-Platonist;
960: Spain Omayyad al-Mansur bulided great library at Córdoba;
970: Baghdad caliphate in final stages; rise of Shi'ite fraction in Egypt;
1000: Islam becomes a majority religion in Mesopotamia and Persia;
1035: Ibn Sina read the Metapysics 40th time, yet he does not understood it;
1055: Ghaznavid Turks conquer Baghdad and impose Sunnite ortodoxy; time of
burning books and persecutions of Shi'ites, Mutazilites remains, Ismailis and
moderate Ashraite school. Not to mention pre-Islamic religions.
1071: anti-Intellectual Hanbalis preasures kalam schools and falsifa.
1085: Christians conquer Toledo;
1099: Christians in the First Crusade massacred inhabitants of Jerusalem;
1100: falsifa virtualy ended in Islamc east; Sufism flourishes and
incorporates alliences with ultra radical hanbalites;
1118: Christians conquer Saragossa, Córdoba caliphate collapses;
1125-1150: bishop of Toledo establishes school for translation; Qu'ran is
translated in latin;
1147: Christians recaptured Lisbon;
1149: Berberic Almohads take over Córdoba and Andalusia, Jews and philosophers
flee;
1200: Jew intellectuals found islamic world hostile and made uneasy move to Christendom;
1231: Mongol armies had overrun Persia and Mesopotamia;
1236: Christians take over Córdoba and …;
1248: … Seville;
1258: Mongols massacred and destroyed Baghdad; city's lost its remains of
vitality;
1280-1300: the most popular texts of Kabbalah appeared;
1291: Crusader Christians had been driven out; persecutions of eastern
Christians;
1492: Kingdom of Kastil and Aragon unites. Enclava of Granada conquered,
ending age of re-conquista.



prophet Muhammad, c.570-632:
@ New Religious Movements,
@ usc.edu,
@ Humanistic Texts


KALAM:
@ The Philosophy Of Kalam,
@ Encyclopedia of Orient,
@ Wikipedia

SHIISM:
@ Encyclopedia of Orient
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,

---> COMMON SHIA:
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,
@ Wikipedia

---> ISMAILI {Imam before Prophet}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,
@ Wikipedia

MUTAZILITE:
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,
@ Wikipedia

SUFISM:
@ arches.uga.edu,
@ Encyclopedia of Orient,
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,
@ Wikipedia

MATH & SCIENCE

ALCHEMY:
@ chemheritage.org,
@ Wikipedia
____________________________


St. John of Damascus, c.675-c.750, {Father and Doctor of Eastern Ch., Melikte Christian, important middle link in transmitting ancient knowledge to Arabs, w. »Fount of Knowledge«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Hasan al Basri, ?-d. 728, {proto-Mutazili proto-Sufi, from Basra}:
@ Wikipedia

(Abu Hanifah), c.700-c.767, {jurist, founder of Hanafi School}:
@ Muslim Heritage,
@ Wikipedia

Wasil ibn Ata, c.700–748, {founder of the Mutazilite}:
@ Wikipedia,

Amr ibn Ubayd, d.761, {founder of the Mutazilite}:
@ Wikipedia

Malik ibn Anas, c.715-796, {Hadith Scholar, anti-Kalam, w. »Kitab Al-Muwatta«}:
@ Wikipedia

(al Muqaffa), c.735-?, {translator from Persian to Arabic} *

Mu'ammar al Basri, 8th. cent., {Basra theologian, atomic substantialism and occasionalism} *

Hisham ibn al-Hakam, 8th. cent, {Mutazili, no difference btw substance and accidents, Qu'ran as allegory} *

Slika Rabia al Basri, 717-801, {mystic}:
@ Poet Seers

Malik ibn Anas, 8/9th cent., {Malkite School} *

Dirar ibn Amr, 8/9th cent., {Mutazili, anti-substantial, only accidents exist} *

(Harun al Rashid), 766-r.786-809), {fifth caliph of the Abbasid dynasty} *

--------------
Slika
al Jahiz; c.781-c.869, {Mutazili encyclopeadist, introduced evolutionist concept of 'strugle for existence', w. zoology work »Kitab al-Hayawan« (Book of Animals)}:
@ al Jahiz influence on Lamarck and Darwin,
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ Islam Online,
@ Wikipedia

Al-Bukhari, 810-870:
@ Hyper History

Abu'l-Hudhayal al-Allaf, d. 840 {Mutazili, proponent of free will} *

al Tahawi, c.843-935, {Sunni-Hanafi Scholar}:
@ Wikipedia

Abu Ishaq al Nazzam, d. 845, {radical Mutazili, anti-substantial, proponent of free will} :
@ Muslim Philosophy

Al Shafi'i, 9th. cent, {student of Malik, founder of Shafi'ite School}:
@ [url=As-Sunna Foundation of America]http://www.sunnah.org/publication/khulafa_rashideen/shafii.htm[/url],
@ Wikipedia

Bishr al-Mu'tamir, 9.th cent, {Baghdad Mutazili} *

(Ahmad Ibn Hanbal), 780-855, {Hanbalite hadith school of anti-kalam and anti-Mutazili, the most rigid form of law schools of Islam}:
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia

(Abdullah al-Mamun), ?-r.813-833, {Abbasid caliph, supporter of translating, House of Wisdom, Qu'ran as created} *

--------------------
Slika
al Khwarizmi (Algorithmi), 9th.cent., {0 and more philo stuff}:
@ The History of Computing Project,
@ Public Broadcasting Station,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews

al-Harish al-Muhasibi, 9th. cent., {with him starts Sufism as mysticism}

al Bistami [Abu Yazid], 9th.cent., {Sufi}:
@ fortunecity.com

Junayd Baghdadi, 9th.cent., {Sufi, via ibn Sina, w. »Kitab al-mu'tabar«}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ abc.se,
@ Elements Of Sufism,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
al Kindi (Alkindus), c.800-c.87, {school Mashsha'i, 'falsifa' importer, innovator of Arab ph. terminology, eclectic synthesis btw Islam, Neoplatonism and Aristotel(=Plotinus)}:
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Resources on Islam & Science,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Abu 'l-Husayn al-Nuri, ?-d. 908, {Sufi}:
@ Poetry Chaikhana

al Junayd al Hazzas, d. 909, {Sufi} *

Abu Hashim, 9/10th cent., {swan song of Mutazilites} *


Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, c.850-950, {Jewish Neopatonist ph., physician, co-emanation of matter and form, influence on Saadia, Albertus Magnus and Aquinas}:
@ Wikipedia


al Hallaj, 857-922, {radical populist Sufi and martyr, al Junayd student, w. poem »I am the Truth!«, expert for al Hallaj is L. Massignon, who wrote »La Passion d'Al-Hallaj, martyr mistique de l'islam«}:
@ Elements Of Sufism,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Poet Seers

Abu Bishr Matta, 9/10th cent., {Ch. logican, conditional syllogisms, influence on Farabi} *

Abu Bakr al-Razi (Rhazes), 865-925, {physician, alchemist, secular and anti-religious ph., reason is superior over prophecy}:
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ Wikipedia


Daud al-Muqammas, ?- 937, {Jewish ph., importer from the Arabic 'falsifa'}:
@ Wikipedia


----------------
Slika
al Farabi (Alfarabius), 872-950, {school mashsha'i, Sufi, scientist, Neo-Platonist Aristotle commentator, Prophet as philosopher-king, quantification of predicates}:
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ diafrica.org,
@ FARABI.html,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

al Ashari, 873-935, {ex-Mutazili, Ashari hadith school of Kalam, Qur'an is not created, w. »Maqalat al-eslamiyin« (Islam and Reason) }:
@ Resources on Islam and Science,
@ Hyper History,
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,
@ Wikipedia

(al-Nawbakhti), 10th cent., {Shiite, announces Hidden 12th Imam} *


Saadiah Gaon al Fayyumi, 882-942, {1st major Jewish ph., theo. & Rabbanite, w. »Book of Critically Chosen Belifs and Convictions«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ bautz.de,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia


Ibn Masarra, 883-941, {1st Muslim ph. in Spain, both Mutazili & Sufi}:
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Yahya ibn Adi, 893-974, {Syrian Christian, reasoning of God's unity and trinity} *

al Baqillani, 10th cent, {Ashari hadith school} *

al Maturidi, 10th cent, (offshot of Ashari school in Samarqand, elements od Mutazilism}:
@ Wikipedia

Yahia ibn Adi, 10th cent., {Christian, student of al Farabi, teacher of Sijistani} *

al Amiri, 10th.cent., {Neo-Platonist thinker}:
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Ibn al Rawandi, 10th.cent., {secular intellectual, science is superior to religion}:
@ Wikipedia

»Liber de causis«, 10th.cent.:
@ Muslim Philosophy

Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi, c.930-1023, {Neoplatonic Occultist and eclectic ph.} *

Abu Ya'qub al-Sijistani, c.932-c.1000, {leader of ''Bretheren of Purity'', Aristotelian and Neoplatonist, reason and faith cannot be united} :
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,

----------------
Slika
al Haytham (Alhazen), 965-1041, {scholar of islamic science, influence on R. Bacon}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

(Abu-Said Abil-Kheir), 967-1049, {Sufi poet}:
@ Poetry Chaikhana,

Thabit ibn Qurra, 10th cent., {ex-Sabian star worshipper, influence on emanation theology} *

al Biruni (Aliboron), 973-1048, {Arab science erudit}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Resources on Islam & Science,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Ibn Sina (Avicenna), 980-1037, {school mashsha'i, islamic Neo-Platonist, essence is higher reality than existence, w. »On the human soul«}:
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Ontology. A Resource Guide for Philosophers,
@ Resources on Islam & Science,
@ New Advent,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Encyclopedia of Orient,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar, 11.cent., {mutazili, encyc.} *

Nasir-i Khusraw, 11.cent. {Ismaili school of ph.} *

Ibn Hazm, 994-1063, {Spain anti-kalam theol., w. »Kitab al-fisal« (Detailed Critical Examination)}:
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ Resources on Islam & Science,
@ Wikipedia

Khwaja Abdullah Ansari, 1006-1088, {Persian Sufi and hadith scholar, influence on Ibn Taymiyah, w. »Munajat Namah« (Litanies or dialogues with God)}:
@ Wikipedia


Slika
Ibn Gabirol (Avicebron), c.1020-c.1050, {Sp. Jewish ph. & poet, Neo-Platonist, w. »Fons Vitae«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia


al-Juwayni, 1028-85, {philologist, Ashari school of kalam} *

(Omar Khayyam), c.1048-c.1132, {Persian Sufi poet and math., w. »Rubáiyát«}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,
@ Poet Seers,
@ Jewish Virtual Library


Bahya Ibn Paquda, 1st.half. of 11th.cent, {Jewish-Sp. ph., Neo-Platonist under influence of Sufism, w. »Al Hidayah ila Faraid al-Qulub« (Guide to the Duties of the Heart)}:
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ Wikipedia


Ibn al Sid of Baiados, 1052-1127, {Spain ph., symbolic Pythagoreanism} *

--------------------
Slika
Abu Hamid al Ghazali (Algazel), 1059-1111, {sufi, Platonist, anti-ismaili, anti-Avicenna, radical occasionalist and voluntarist, main intelectual influence on Islam, w. »The Incoherence of the Philosophers«}:
@ ghazali.org,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Resources on Islam and Science,
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,
@ Encyclopedia of Orient,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia


Abraham Bar Hiyya, 1070-1136, {Jewish-Sp. ph., Eclectic Neo-Platonist, astron., astrol., w. »The Meditation of the Sad Soul«}:
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Moses ibn Ezra, 1070-c.1138, {Jewish-Sp. ph., Eclectic Neo-Platonist influenced by Gabirol, poet}:
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ Wikipedia

(Yehuda Halevi), 1075-1141, {Jewish-Sp. ph., anti-kalam, anti-karaite, Judaism over philosophy, w. »Kitab al-Khazari« (Book of Hazar)}:
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Wikipedia

Joseph ibn Tzaddik, 12th. cent, {Neo-Platonist influenced by Gabirol, rationalist}:
@ Wikipedia


al Baghdaadi, c.1075-1164, {ex-Jewish convert, physician, metaphysic ph.}:
@ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibat_Alla ... -Baghdaadi

Ibn Bajjah (Avempace), 1095-1138, {Spain political ph., Neo-Platonist, school of mashsa'i}:
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Ibn Tufayl (Abubacer), 1105-1185, {Spain ph. and novelist, Neo-Platonist, vegan, w. »Hayy ibn Yaqdhan« (Philosophus Autodidactus)}:
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,
@ Encyclopedia of Orient,
@ Wikipedia


Abraham ibn Daud, (Avendauth) c.1110-80, {Jewish-Sp. hist. & ph., introducer of aristotelianism to Jews, proto-Averroist, contra Platonism of ibn Gabirol}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia


Attar of Nishapur, 1120-1235, {sufi poet}:
@ Poet Seers,
@ Infoplease

ibn Quzman, ?-1159:
@ Wikipedia

(al-Bitruji (Alpetragius), 12th cent., {Spanish proto-Kopernikan astron., eccentrics and epicycles as redundant} *

--------------------
Slika
Ibn Rushd (Averroës), 1126-98, {Spain rationalistic ph., commentator and reanimator – not transmiter ! - of Aristotle qua Aristotle}:
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Resources on Islam & Science,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,
@ Encyclopedia of Orient,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia


DOMINATION OF MISTYCISM AND SHARIA LEGALISM IN ISLAMIC THOUGHT

al Shirazi, 1128-1209, {Sufi, anti-Avicenna}:
@ Wikipedia


--------------------
Slika
Moses Maimonides (Rambam), 1135-1204, {Jewish-Sp. ph., Aristotelian, w. »Guide to the Perplexed«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ New Advent,
@ Encyclopedia of Orient,
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,
@ iis.unsa.ba,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Wikipedia


(Farid ad-Din Attar), c.1145-c. 1221, {Persian Sufi poet}:
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Wikipedia

Fakhruddin Razi, 1149-1209, {Ashari school of kalam, influence on S.
Suhrawardi, anti-ibn Sina, w. »Mafatih al-ghayb« (The Keys to the Unknown)}:
@ izhamburg.de,
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ Resources on Islam & Science,
@ Wikipedia

Shihab al-Din Suhrawardi, 1155-1191, {sufi, theosophic school of Ishraq-Light, reviving elements of Zoroastrianism, w. »Kitab hikmat al-ishrak« The Philosophy of Illumination}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

ibn Arabi, 1164-1240, {master Sufi who abandoned rational ph., Muhammad as Logos, w. »The Makkan Inspirations«}:
@ Ibn Arabi Society,
@ Resources on Islam and Science,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Poet Seers,
@ Wikipedia


Abraham ben Maimonides, 1168-1237, {son of Maimonides, defender of father's teaching, later mystic, w. »Complete Guide for Devotees«} *

Umar Ibn al-Farid, 1181 - 1235, {Sufi}
@ Poetry Chaikhana

Hamid al-Din Kirmani, ?-c.1238, {Ismaili schol of ph.}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Wikipedia

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, 1201-74, {math., astron., Shia kalam, important
for refutation of Ptolemaic system}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Jalal Ad-Din Rumi, 1207-1273, {Sufi, Persian poet, radical pantheist}:
@ Sufism Orders,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Poet Seers,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar

Saadi, c.1207-91, {sufi, Ishraqi shool}:
@ Poetry Chaikhana
@ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saadi_(poet)

Fakhruddin Iraqi, 1213-1289, {Sufi of ibn Arabi's lineage}:
@ Poetry Chaikhana


Said ibn Mansur Ibn Kammuna, 1215-1284, {last Jewish ph. in east, converted to Islam}:
@ Wikipedia


Ibn Sabin (Abensabín), 1218-50, {Aristotelan turned sufi}:
@ Biografias y vidas

(Yunus Emre), c.1238-1320, {Sufi poet}:
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Wikipedia

al Hilli, 1250-1325, {Shia kalam}:
@ Wikipedia

Ibn Ata' Illah, 1250 - 1309, {Sufi}:
@ Poetry Chaikhana

Ibn Taymiyyah, 1263-1328, {Hanbalite school of anti-kalam, anti-Ibn Arabi, Muslim cannot be at same time a philosopher, w. »The Correct Answer to the One Who Changed the Religion of the Messiah«}:
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,
@ Encyclopedia of Orient,
@ Wikipedia

Ala al-Davl Simnani, {anti-Ibn Arabi} *

(Mahmud Shabistari) , c.1288 -c.1320, {Sufi of ibn Arabi's line, w. »Gulshan-i Raz« (The Secret Rose Garden)}:
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Poet Seers

Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya, 1292-1350, {Hanbalite anti-occultist science scholar, disciple of Ibn Taymiyah}:
@ Famous Muslims,
@ Wikipedia

Ibn Battuta, 1304-1369, {w. »Rihlah«}:
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,

Hamadani, 1314-85, {Shia Sufi}:
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Wikipedia

(Hafiz), 1320 - 1389, {Persian Sufi and mystic poet}:
@ Hafiz 'On Love',
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Poet Seers,
@ Wikipedia

Taftazani, 1322-1390, {Ashari school of kalam}:
@ salaam.co.uk

Shah Nimatullah, 14/15 cent., {Sufi}:
@ The Nimatullahi Sufi Order,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Ibn Khaldun, 1332-1406, {universal sociological thinker and historian, developed the very first secular social theory}:
@ Encyclopedia of Orient,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Resources on Islam & Science,
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Wikipedia

al Dawani, 1426-1502, {Sufi, logic comentator, w. »Jalalean Ethics«}:
@ Muslim Philosophy


Isaac Luria, 1534-72, {influential Cabalist}:
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ Poetry Chaikhana

Chaim Vital, 1543-1620, {Cabalist}:
@ Jewish Virtual Library


Mir Damad, ???-1630, {Persian gnostic ph.}:
@ Muslim Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Mulla Sadra, c.1571-1640, {Persian ph., elements of Aristotelism, Neoplatonist occult ph. and Shi'ite theology, w. »Asfar«, "The Four Journeys"}:
@ Mulla Sadra.org,
@ Resources on Islam & Science,
@ Wikipedia

Zadnjič spremenil Hinko_Gnito, dne 19.10.09 21:34:13, skupaj popravljeno 15 krat.

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Kontakt:

OdgovorNapisal/-a Hinko_Gnito » 26.11.08 17:41:05

SCHOLASTICISM :
@ New Advent,
@ Vorländer’s Geschichte der Philosophie

History Philosophy Informative:
1093: Anselm became bishop of Cabterbury;
1099: Jerusalem Kingdom established;
1100 => Arabian export, Christian import;
1118: Heloises uncle Flubert castrated her lover Abelard;
1200: Jew intellectuals found islamic world hostile and made uneasy move to Christendom;
1228: papal reaction against Arab Aristoteleanism;
1230-1260: time of High Scholastics;
1250: Aristotle became known as 'The Philosopher';
1252: The Paris Universitiy had added to trivium and kvadrium three more aristotelian sciences: natural philosophy, logic and moral philosophy;
1277: Averroism condemned by church authorities; theology and philosophy started going their own way;
1280-1300: the most popular texts of Kabbalah appeared;
1300: struggles over philosophical positions btw Franciscans and Dominicans;
1307: suppresion and confiscation of the Templars by the French king;
1309: Dominicans had made Aquinas for leading theologian; Cisterians and Augustinias joined the Thomist camp; in response, Franciscans prohibited reading of Aquinas in their order;
1323: Aquinas sainted, still not with support of Franciscans, which had failed with canonisation of Duns Scot; still Scotists had made contra offensive in the universities;
1347: Nicholas of Autrecourt's books had been lighten up;
1378-1449: Great schism;




Beda Venerabilis, 673-735, {Doctor of Ch., w. » Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum« The Ecclesiastical History of the English People) }:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

St. John of Damascus, c.675-c.750, {Father and Doctor of Eastern Ch., Melikte Christian, influence on Arabs, w. »Fount of Knowledge«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Alcuin of York, 735-804, {Carolingian scholar, student of Beda Venerabilis}:
@ bu.edu,
@ New Advent,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Rabanus Maurus, ?-856, {'praeceptor Germaniae'}:
@ New Advent

Gottschalk, c.808-c.867, {radical augustinian, proponent of absolute predestination}:
@ Wikipedia

Photius of Constantinople, 820-91, {Byzantine theologian and historian}:
@ mlahanas.de,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Scottus Eriugena, c.825-c.877, {Ch. Neo-Platonist, reworked Pseudo-Dionysius, w. »De Divisione Naturae«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Ontology. A Resource Guide for Philosophers,
@ Boston Collaborative Encyclopedia of Western Theology,
@ New Advent,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Joannes Xiphilinus, 10th.cent.:
@ mlahanas.de

Berengar of Tours, 999-1088, {imported full use of dialectic in theology, problems with view on transubstantiation of the Eucharist}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

(St. Peter Damian), 1007-72, {Doctor of Ch., anti-philosopher, w. »Liber Gomorrhianus«, »De Divina Omipotentia«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

(Michael Psellus) (Pselos), 1018-1096, {Byiz. historian and Platonist}:
@ mlahanas.de,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
St. Anselm of Canterbury, 1033-1109, {Doctor of Curch, ontological argument, contra-Roscelin, w. »Proslogion«, »Monologion«, »Why God Became a Man?« }:
@ New Advent,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ ISCID Encyclopedia of Science and Philosophy,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Gaunilo of Marmoutiers, 11th.cent., {contra Anselm onto. arg., w. »In Behalf of the Fool«}:
@ Philosophy of Religion Info

Roscelin of Compiègne, c.1050-c.1125, {'Doctor diabolicus', extreme nominalist}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

William of Champeaux, 1070-1121, {radical realist, established some colleges of what became later the Universitiy of Paris, dispute with his student Abelard}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

William of St. Thierry, c.1075-1148, {contra-Abelard, w. »Disputation«}:
@ New Advent

Gilbert of Poitiers, 1076-1154, {School of Chartres, w. »Commentaries on Boethius«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Peter Abelard, 1079-1142, {French scholastic philosopher, conceptualist, logician and dialectician, married with Heloise, w. »Sic et non«}:
@ abelard.org,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Ontology. A Resource Guide for Philosophers,
@ New Advent,
@ Jacques Maritain Center,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages

Slika (Anna Comnena), 1083-1148:
@ mlahanas.de,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ New Advent

Abraham ibn Ezra (Abenezra), 1093-1167, {Jewish-Sp. ph., Neo-Platonist}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ New Advent,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia


St. Bernard of Clairvaux, 1091-1153, {Doctor of Ch., contendant with Abelard, chief Cisterian, anti-philosopher, mystic}:
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Wikipedia

Peter Lombard, 1095-1160, {Abelards student, author of the »Sentences«, educational standard of knowledge for theologians}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Hugh of St. Victor, 1096-1141, {mystic, w. »Didascalicon or On the Study of Reading«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Nicephorus Blemmides, 1197-1272, {Byzan.}:
@ New Advent

Slika St. Hildegard of Bingen, 1098-1179, {mystic, natural scientist}:
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Poet Seers,
@ Wikipedia

Thierry of Chartres, fl.1130-1155, {School of Chartres, text searcher via Toledo and Sicily}:
@ New Advent,
@ Jacques Maritain Center,
@ Wikipedia

William of Conches, 1100-?, {School of Chartres, commentator on Plato, w. »Dragmaticon«}:
@ New Advent

Slika Heloise, c.1101-1164, {Disciple, Love and Correspondent to Peter Abelard}:
@ The Window Philosophy

Dominic Gundissalinus, 12th cent., {translated Avicenna, Algazel and Avicebron, w. »De Divisione Philosophiae«}:
@ Wikipedia

John of Salisbury, 1115-80, {School of Chartres, Abelard's student, w. »Metalogicon« }:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Adelard of Bath, c.1116-c.1142:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Alain de Lille, c.1128-1202, {'Doctor universalis', encyclopedic scholar of School of Chartres, w. »Anticlaudianus«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Joachim of Fiore, 1145-1202, {Biblical scholar, criticized by Aquinas and Bonaventure}:
@ parrocchiasantalucia.com,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Amaury of Bene, ?-c.1205, {pantheist}:
@ Wikipedia

Herman of Carinthia [Herman of Dalmatia], 12th.cent., {ph., scientist, translator and populariser of Arabic culture, 1st known translation of Qur'an into a European language, w. »De essentiis« ([i]On essences)}:
@ Istrianet.org,
@ Wikipedia

(Gerard of Cremona), 1114-87, {Italian translator from Arabic to Latin}:
@ New Advent,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Bernard Silvestris, 12th.cent., {School of Chartres, Platonist, poet, w. »Cosmographia«}:
@ Wikipedia

Judah ben Samuel of Regensburg, c.1150-1217, {Jewish-Ger. ph., proto-Hasidic mystic and moralist, w. »Sefer Hasidim« (Book of the Pious)}:
@ Jewish Encyclopedia,
@ Wikipedia

Samuel Ibn Tibbon, c.1150-1230, {Jewish-Fr. ph., Maimonidist, translator}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ Wikipedia


Alexander Neckham, 1157-1217, {natural scientist, w. »On the Natures of Things«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

David of Dinant, c.1160-c.1215, {materialist pantheist, w. »Summa Theologica«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Philip the Chancellor, c.1160-1236, {influence on Albert the Great, w. »Summa de bono«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia



HIGH SCHOLASTICS

Robert Grosseteste, 1168-1253, {Platonist in theology, Aristotelian in natural sciences, spherical universe, influence on Dante}:
@ Grosseteste.com,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

(Leonardo Fibonacci), c.1170-c.1240, {Italian mathematician}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews

(Saint Dominic), c.1170-1221, {Spanish theologian, founder of Dominican monk order}:
@ New Advent,

Guillaume d' Auvergne, c.1180-1249, {Aristotelian}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

(St. Francis of Assisi), 1181-1226, {Italian mystic, founder of Fran. monk order}:
@ New Advent,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Wikipedia

Alexander of Hales, c.1185-1245, {'Doctor Irrefragabilis', theological erudite, w. »Summa Halesiana«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Boethius of Dacia, 1.half.13th.cent., {Averroist reformator of science, w. »On the Supreme Good«}:
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Moses ben Nahman (Nachmanides), 1194-1270, {Talmudist, Cabalist, anti-Aristotelan}:
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ stanford.edu,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Wikipedia


(Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor), 1194-1250, {Machiavellian-alike ruler, but well educated patron of arts}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

St. Anthony of Padua, 1195-1231, {mystic, Doctor of Church}:
@ New Advent

--------------------
Slika
St. Albert von Bollstadt [Albert the Great, Albertus Magnus], 1200-80, {'Doctor Subtilis', teacher of T. Aquinas, mediator of Aristotle, encyclopedic knowledge, but still too Neo-Platonist/Augustinian}:
@ New Advent,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Jewish Encyclopedia,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Jean de la Rochelle / Joannes de Rupella, 1200-45, {Franciscan theol. teacher}:
@ New Advent,
@ users.bart.nl
@ Wikipedia

(Robert de Sorbon), 1201-74:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Peter of Spain (Petrus Hispanus), c.1210-77, {author of logic standard »Summule logicales« pseudonyim for pope John XXI, yet not certain}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Roger Bacon, 1214-92, {'Doctor Mirabilis', averroist promoting inductive sciences, w. »Opus maius«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

William of Moerbeke, c. 1215-86, {The Man Who Saved Aristotle}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Henry of Ghent, 1217-93, {'Doctor Sollemnis', proponent of secularism, heavy influenced by Avicenna and Averroes}:
@ Jacques Maritain Center,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Hillel ben Samuel, 1220-1295, {Jewish-It. ph., Maimonidist, Talmdist, w. »The Rewards of the Soul«}:
@ Wikipedia

St. Bonaventure, 1221-74, {'Doctor Seraphicus', Doctor of Ch., Franciscan, influenced by Augustine and Avicenna, w. »The Journey of the Mind to Good« }:
@ New Advent,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
St. Thomas Aquinas, c.1225-74, {'Doctor Angelicus', leading theo. of Cath.Ch., w. »Summa contra Gentiles«, »Summa theologiae«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Biographies, The Philosophers,
@ ISCID Encyclopedia of Science and Philosophy,
@ The Philosophers’ Magazine,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Robert Kilwardby, 13th cent., {defender of Augustine, anti-Thomist, anti-Averroist}:
@ New Advent

Slika Hadewijch, 13th.cent. {mystic poet}:
@ e notes,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Wikipedia

Richard Rufus of Cornwall, 2.half.13th.cent., {'Magister Abstractionum', Aristotles commentator, influence on Duns Scotus}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Ramon Llull, 1232-1316, {'Doctor Illuminatissimus', Catalan mystic, w. »Ars Magna«}:
@ New Advent,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Wikipedia

Siger de Brabant, c.1235-81, {Aristotelian and Averroist}:
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Salomon Adreth, 1235-1310, {Jewish-Sp. ph., raabi and banker, anti allegorism of Maimonides}:
@ Wikipedia

(Abraham Abulafia),1240-1291, {Jewish-Sp. ph., Kabbalist}:
@ Learn Kabbalah,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Wikipedia


John Pecham, 1240-92, {Franciscan anti-Averroist and Anti-Thomist}:
@ New Advent

Georgios Pachimeros, 1242-1310, {Byzan.} *

Peter Olivi, 1248-98, {proto-Ockhamist, destruction of unnecessarily entities}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

ibn Gikatila, c.1248-c.1325, {Jewish-Sp. ph., mystic symbols of Hebrew alphabeth, student of Abulafia}:
@ Jewish Encyclopedia

Moses de León, c.1250-1305, {Jewish-Sp. ph., Cabalist, w. »Zohar«}:
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Wikipedia


Pietro d'Abano, c.1250-c.1316:
@ Infoplease

Dietrich of Freiberg, 1250-1310, {Neo-Platonist theol., mystic, Eckhart student, but practical secular thinker, w. »On Existence and Essence«, »On the Rainbow and Radial Impressions«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Godfrey of Fontaines, c.1250-c.1309, {Thomist}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Meister Eckhart, 1260-1329, {German mystic, theol., Rheinland mystic school}:
@ The Meister Eckhart Site,
@ wwisp.com,
@ New Advent,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Poet Seers,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

anonym. Meister Eckhart's pupil, 14th.cent., {w. mystical poem » Granum Sinapis« (A Grain of Mustard Seed)}:
@ Poetry Chaikhana

Simon of Faversham, c. 1260-1306:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Maximus Planudes, 1260-1310, {Byzan.}:
@ Wikipedia

Theodore Metochites, 1260-1332, {Byzan.}:
@ mlahanas.de,
@ Wikipedia

Giles of Rome, d.1316, {'Doctor Fundatissimus', Thomist, contra Henry of Ghent}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

(Dante Alighieri), 1265-1321, {Italian poet, proto-humanist thinker, w. »La Divina Commedia«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Wikipedia

=========================

Slika
John Duns Scotus, c.1266-1308, {'Doctor subtilis et marianus', radical particularism, contra-Thomism and contra-Neoplatonism, principle of individuation – haecceitas, theology as wisdom and not science, influence on Heidegger, w. »Tractatus on primo principio« (On First Principle)}:
@ Jacques Maritain Center,
@ New Advent,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Ontology. A Resource Guide for Philosophers,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Jewish Encyclopedia,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

==========================

Immanuel of Rome, c.1270-c.1330:
@ Wikipedia


Durand of St. Pourçain, c.1275-1334, {'Doctor Modernus', Aristotelian proto-Ockhamist}:
@ New Advent

Marsilius of Padua, c.1275-1343, {excommunicated Averroist, secular thinker, anti-papist, w. »Defender of Peace«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Walter Burley, c.1275-1344, {hard realist, anti-nominalist, logic, natural scientist, w. »Tractatus primus«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Henry of Harclay, lived c.1300, {nominalist atomist}:
@ Wikipedia

Peter Auriol / Aureol, c.1280-1322, {proto-Ockhamist, theory of 'esse apparens'}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia


--------------------
Slika
William of Ockham, c.1287-47, {'Doctor Invincibilis', destructive nominalist, political 'common sense' thinker, keeped theology off the philosophy, theological influence on Luther, w. »Commentary on the Physics of Aristotle«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Ontology. A Resource Guide for Philosophers,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia
Zadnjič spremenil Hinko_Gnito, dne 17.07.09 8:02:59, skupaj popravljeno 16 krat.

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OdgovorNapisal/-a Hinko_Gnito » 26.11.08 17:41:38

AGE OF SCHOLASTICS STAGNATION

Levi ben Gerson (Gersonides), 1288-1344, {Jewish-Fr. ph., Aristotelian, w. »The Wars of the Lord«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ E-notes,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia


Robert Holcot, c.1290-1349, {Ockhamist, nominalist, or neither of that ?}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ mellenpress.com,
@ Wikipedia

Francis of Marchia, c.1290-1344, {'Doctor Succinctus', Franciscan, natural scientist}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Barlaam of Calabria, 1290-1348 , {Byzan.}*

Judah Romano, c.1292-c.1330, {translator and Maimonidean ph., influenced by Albert the Great, Aquinas and Maimonides} *

Jan van Ruysbroeck, 1293-1381, {mystic, influenced by Eckhart}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Thomas Bradwardine, c.1295-1349, {'Doctor profundis', proto-reformator, anti-nominalist, group of 'Oxford calculators', w. »On the Ratios of Velocities in Motions«, »On Future Contingents«, w. »Against the Pelagians«}:
@ bradwardine,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Richard Swineshead, fl.c.1340-1354, {natural ph. of Oxford groop, w. »Book of Calculations«} *

Nicephorus Gregoras, 1295-1360, {Byzan.}:
@ Wikipedia

Gregory Palamas, c.1296-c.1360, {Byzan. theo., w. »Topics of Natural and Theological Science and on the Moral and Ascetic Life«}:
@ mlahanas.de,
@ goarch.org,
@ Wikipedia

Henry Suso, 1300-1366, {German mystic, Eckhart student, tried to link Eckhart with Aquinas, w. »The Little Book of Truth«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Johann Tauler, 1300-61, {'Doctor illuminatius', mystic, more practical than other of Eckhart students, w. »Sermons«}:
@ New Advent,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Wikipedia

Jean de Jandun, c. 1300, {excommunicated radical Aristotelist, political Averroist, anti-Papist}:
@ New Advent

Gregory of Rimini, c.1300-58, {'Doctor Authenticus', Augustinian theo.}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Jean Buridan (Joannes Buridanus), c.1300-c.60, {empiricism without Aristoteliansim}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Moses of Narbonne, c.1300-c.1362, {translator, Averroist, Maimonidist}:
@ Wikipedia


Richard Kilvington, c.1302-1361, {natural ph., group of 'Oxford calculators'}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Francesco Petrarca, 1304-74, {Italian poet and proto-humanist}:
@ petrarca.it,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Wikipedia

Nicolai Cabasilas, ?-1371, {Byzan.}:
@ mlahanas.de

Nicholas of Autrecourt, 14th.cent., {radical nominalist, atomist, radical sceptic, understood causality like Hume, belived in reincarnation, w. »The Universal Treatise«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

John of Mirecourt, 14th cent.,{radical nominalist, methodological sceptic, God could be ''an evil spirit'', there are no substances}:
@ Wikipedia

(Boccaccio), 1313-1406, {Italian novelist, w. »Decameron« }:
@ Decameron Web

Albert of Saxony, 1316-90, {pre-Newtonian theory of gravity, lacking mathematical calculus, w. »Perutilis logica«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews

Nicole Oresme, c.1320-1382, {French ph. of natue, pre-Copernican ideas, proto-Cartesian coordinates, w. »Book on the Heavens and the World«}:
@ New Advent,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

John Wycliff, 1324-84, {logician, extreme realist, Scotist, proto-Protestant}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

Coluccio Salutati, 1331-1406, {Italian humanist}:
@ New Advent,
@ WiKi.it

Marsilius of Inghen, 1330-96, {nominalist}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

(Gerard Groote), 1340-84, {Dutch mystic and preacher, advocated for common language}:
@ New Advent

Hasdai Crescas, 1340-1412, {Jewish ph., defender of Jewish faith, anti-Aristotelian, influence on Spinoza, w. »Light of the Lord«}:
@ gen-online.org,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia


Slika (St. Catherine of Siena), 1347-80, {Doctor of Ch., non-intellectul mystic}:
@ New Advent,
@ Poetry Chaikhana

Robert Alyngton, 2.half.14th.cent.:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Manuel Chrysoloras, c.1350-1415, {Byzan. humanist}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Pierre d'Ailly (Petrus de Alliaco), 1350-1420, {nominalist via Ockham}:
@ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_d'Ailly


___________________________________



RENAISSANCE & HUMANISM:
@ Vorländer’s Geschichte der Philosophie

History Philosophy Informative:
1378-1449: Great schism;
1474: Louis XI banned nominalism; Oxford became nominalist fort;
1489: German mathematician Johann Widman introduced math symbols + and - .


Slika
Gemistos Plethon, 1355-1450, {Byzan. humanist, revived interest in Plato}:
@ mlahanas.de,
@ New Advent,
@ Die Philosophie Lexikon,
@ Wikipedia

Johannes Sharpe, c.1360-c.1415:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Simeon Duran (Rashbaz), 1361-1444, {Maimonidist, to respect religious law as whole}:
@ Wikipedia,
@ Bartleby Bookstore


Slika Christine de Pizan, 1365-1430, {French poetess and humanist}:
@ pinn.net,
@ New Advent,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Wikipedia

(Jan Hus), c.1369-1415, {Proto-Protestant, follower of J. Wycliff}:
@ anglican.org,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

William Penbygull, d.1420:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Jean Gerson, 1363-1429, {'Doctor Christrianissimus', via moderna moderate realist}:
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

Paul of Venice, 1369-1429, {Averroist, scientist, logician}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Leonardo Bruni, 1369-1444, {Italian humanist}:
@ New Advent,
@ Humanistic Texts

Thomas à Kempis, c.1380-1471, {German mystic and writer, w. »Imitation of Christ«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

John Capreolus, 1380-1444, {Thomist, crit. of Scotism and nominalism, w. »Defences of the Theology of Thomas Aquinas«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Joseph Albo, 1380-1444, {defender of Judaism against Christian attacks, w. »Book of Principles«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ Wikipedia


George of Trebizond, 1396-1472, {Byzantine-Italian humanist, radical Aristotelean, w. »In Calumniatorem Platonis«}:
@ mlahanas.de,
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

Basil Bessarion, c.1400-72, {cath. cardinal, Byzan. humanist, Platonist, w. »De natura et arte«}:
@ New Advent,
@ mlahanas.de,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

(Fra Angelico), c.1400-1455, {Italian painter}:
@ New Advent

--------------------
Slika
Nicolas of Cusa (Nicolaus Cusanus), 1401-1464, {w. »On Learned Ignorance«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Theodor of Gaza, ?-c.1475, {Byzan. translator of Aristotle}:
@ University of Chicago - Medieval Traditions

(Leone Battista Alberti), 1404-1472, {Italian architect and art theorist}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ University of Chicago - Medieval Traditions
@ Wikipedia

Gennadius Scholarius, c.1405-c.1486, {Byzan. theologian, anti-Catholic, }:
@ Ecumenical Patriarchte,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Lorenzo Valla, 1407-57, {Humanist, anti-Aristotelan, anti-Scholastic, w. »On Free Will«}:
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Gabriel Biel, c.1420-95, {'via moderna' nominalist, w. »Synopsis and Commentary on the Four Books of Sentences«}:
@ New Advent,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Wikipedia

Judah Messer Leon, c.1425-c.1495, {Jewish humanist thinker, radical anti-Kabbalist} *

Marsilio Ficino, 1433-99, {Ital. ph. and theo., translator of Plato, revives 'platonic love', w. »Platonic Tehology, On the Immortality of the Soul«, »On Love«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(Regiomontanus), 1436-1476, {German math.}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ University of Chicago - Medieval Traditions

Isaac Abrabanel, 1437-1509, {defended Maimonides, contra Crescas, Albo, Gersonides}:
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia


Rodolphus Agricola, 1444-84, {Dutch humanist, anti-Scholastic Aristotelan, w. »On Dialectical Invention« }:
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

(Girolamo Savonarola),1452-98, {Italian preacher, 'Tyrant of the Virtue'}:
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg

(Leonardo da Vinci), 1452-1519:
@ mos.org,
@ About.com: inventors,
@ The History of Computing Project,
@ Lucidcafé Library,
@ New Advent

Angelo Poliziano, 1454-94, {Italian humanist}:
@ natey.com

Johannes Reuchlin, 1455-1522, {humanist, cabalist, 1st important translator from Hebrew, w. »De Rudimentis Hebraicis«}:
@ New Advent,
@ University of Chicago - Medieval Traditions

Thomas Linacre, c.1460-1524, {English humanist}:
@ greatsite.com

Judah Abravanel (Leone Ebreo), c.1460-c.1521, {Platonist humianist writer, son of Isaac Abrabanel, w. »Dialoghi d'Amori« Dialogues of Love}:
@ Jewish Virtual Library,
@ Wikipedia

Elijah Delmedigo, c.1460-93, {Aristotelian and Averroist, anti-Kabbalist}*


Pietro Pomponazzi, 1462-1524, {Aristotelian with original texts, separating faith and reason, w. »On the Immortality of the Soul«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, 1463-94, {Italian ph. and mystic, w. »Examination of the Vanity of the Doctrine of the Pagans«}:
@ New Advent,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(Philotheus of Pskov), 1465-1542, {Russian Third Rome ideologist, w. »Legend of the White Cowl«}:
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Desiderius Erasmus, c.1466-1536, {Dutch Humanist writer, moderate sceptic, w. »The Praise of Fully«}:
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

John Colet, c.1467-1519, {English theologian and reformist}:
@ New Advent

Guillaume Budé, 1468-1540:
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ [url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Budé]Wikipedia[/url]

Agostino Nifo, c. 1470-1538, {Italian Aristotelian and Averroist ph.}:
@ Wikipedia

(Albrecht Dürer), 1471-1528:
@ New Advent,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Zadnjič spremenil Hinko_Gnito, dne 17.07.09 9:47:39, skupaj popravljeno 12 krat.

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OdgovorNapisal/-a Hinko_Gnito » 26.11.08 17:42:17


History Philosophy Informative:
1496-1505: Copernicus studied in Italy;
1514-1530: Copernicus worked on heliocentric system;
1534: Society of Jesus founded;
1541: Calvin established theocracy in Geneva;
1553: Servetus burned at Geneva;
1580: Spain incorporated Portual; Jew's in Port. had been preasured to flee;



--------------------
Slika
Nicolaus Copernicus, 1473-1543, {w. »De revolutionibus orbium coelestium« (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres)}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ The Galileo Project,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Lucidcafé Library,
@ Biographies, The Philosophers,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ New Advent,
@ About.com: inventors,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ The History of Computing Project,
@ ISCID Encyclopedia of Science and Philosophy,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Thomas Cajetan, c.1474-1528, {Thomist, w. »Comentary on 'Being and Essence'«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

(Bartolomé de Las Casas), 1474-1566, {Spanish missionary and historian, w. »History of the Indies«}:
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Thomas More (St.), 1478-1535, {w. »Utopia«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ Luminarium Project,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ anglican.org,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Girolamo Fracastoro, 1493-1553:
@ Encyclopedia Britannica

Martin Luther, 1483-1546, {German Augustinian monk, Ch. Reformator}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Bartleby Bookstore,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

Ulrich Zwingli, 1484-1531, {Ch. Reformator}:
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg

Agrippa of Nettesheim (Henricus Cornelius), 1486-1535, {sceptical humanist irrationalist, occultist, archetype for Dr Faustus, w. »On the Uncertainty and Vanity of the Sciences«}:
@ Agora,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

Francisco de Vitoria, c.1486-1546, {Spanish theo., political ph., theory of just war and international law, revived Thomism}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

(Johann Eck), 1486–1543:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Ulrich von Hutten, 1488-1523, {German poet and humanist, w. »The Letters of Obscure men«}:
@ University of Chicago - Medieval Traditions,
@ Wikipedia

(St. Ignatius of Loyola), 1491-1556, {w. »Spiritual Exercises«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg

(Martin Bucer), 1491-1551, {Lutheran humanist, ecumenical scholar}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Juan Luis Vives, 1492-1540, {Spanish humanist, pioneered on psychology and pedagogical theories, w. »De anima et vita«, »De disciplinis«}:
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ New Advent,
@ Vorländer’s Geschichte der Philosophie

(Giacomo Aconcio), 1492-1566, {Italian Ch. Reformator}:
@ Wikipedia

François Rabelais, 1493-1553, {French humanist writer, w. »Gargantua and Pantagruel«}:
@ Humanistic Texts
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Biographies, The Philosophers,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Paracelsus, 1493-1541, {Swiss physician and occultist}:
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Niccolo Machiavelli, 1496-1527, {w. »The Prince«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ New Advent,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ Lucidcafé Library,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar

Domingo de Soto, 1494-1560, {Spanish Aristotelian ph. and theo.}:
@ New Advent

Philipp Melanchthon, 1497-1560, {Ch. Reformator, w. »Commonplaces«, »Augsburg Confession «}:
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

Marius Nizolius, 1498-1575:
@ richardwolf.de

Sebastian Franck, 1499-1542, {Ch. Reformator, Humanist, Mystic}:
@ Wikipedia

»Domostroi«, 16.th.cent., {Russian ultra-traditionalist and avtoritative rigorous moral codex for the wealthy}:
@ Wikipedia

(Gerolamo Cardano), 1505-76, {Italian math., gambler and eclectic ph., w. »Ars Magna«}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia.it

(John Knox), c.1505-72, {Ch. Reformator}:
@ creeds.net,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

(Jean Calvin), 1509-64, {Ch. Reformator, proponent of theocracy, w. »Institutes of Christian Religion«}:
@ ccel.org,
@ New Advent,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Wikipedia

Bernardino Telesio, 1509-88, {Italian ph. of nature, w. »On the Nature of Things«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

(Michael Servetus), 1511-1553, {Spanish physician and liberal theologian, w. »De Trinitatis Erroribus«}:
@ Wikipedia

(Georg Joachim Rheticus), 1514-1576, {German math. and astron., populisator of Copernicus}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews

Petrus Ramus, 1515-72, {French Protestant humanist ph. and math., slained on the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre, w. »Criticisms of the Aristotelian Dialectic«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Slika (St. Teresa of Avila), 1515-82, {Doctor of Ch., Carmelite mystic, anti-intellectual}:
@ New Advent,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Wikipedia

(St. Philip Neri), 1515-95, {mystic, founder of anti-Calivnist and anti-Jesuit Oratorians}:
@ New Advent

(Theodore Beza), 1519-1605, {Ch. Reformator}:
@ Wikipedia

(Andrea Cesalpino), 1519-1603, {Italian scientist}:
@ Wikipedia

Jean Bodin, 1520-96, {French historian and political thinker of absolutism}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Wikipedia

(Thomas Erastus), 1524-83, {Ch. Reformator}:
@ Wikipedia

Frane Petriæ (Francesco Patrizi), 1529-97, {Venetian humanist and occultist, anti-Aristotelan, w. »New Philosophy of Universes«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Jacopo Zabarella, 1532-89, {Aristotelean with original texts}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Michel de Montaigne, 1533-92, {sceptic humanist, w. »Essais«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ orst.edu,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Biographies, The Philosophers,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(Valentin Weigel), 1533-88, {Ch. Reformator, Mystic}:
@ crystalinks.com

Luis de Molina, 1535-1600, {Jesuit ph., liberal theol., wrote about grace and free will, 'scientia media', influence on Leibniz, w. »A Reconciliation of Free Choice«}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Wikipedia

(Fabricius ab Aquapendente), 1537-1619), {Italian anatomist and embriologist}:
@ Wolfram Research

(François Viète), 1540-1603, {French math.}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wolfram Research,
@ Wikipedia

Pierre Charron, 1541-1603, {sceptic, fiedist, anti-Calvinist, w. »On Wisdom«}:
@ NNDB biographies,
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

St. John of the Cross, 1542-1591, {Doctor of Ch., one of major Catholic mystics, negative dialectian, anti-sensationalist, disciple of T. Avila}:
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Professor

St. Robert Bellarmine, 1542-1621, {Doctor of Ch., Thomist, Galileo's moderate critic}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

(Tycho Brahe), 1546-1601, {Danish astronomer, precise aston. observer}:
@ The Galileo Project

Justus Lipsius, 1547-1606, {Flemish Humanist thinker, Neostoicist, w. »On Constancy«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Giordano Bruno, 1548-1600, {Italian ph. of nature, eclectic Neo-Platonist cosmologist and occultist, supporter of Copernicus, w. »The Ash Wednesday Supper«}:
@ Alfred Weber’s ‘History of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Internet Infidels,
@ New Advent,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Francisco Suárez, 1548-1617, {'Doctor Eximinus', Spanish Jesuit metaphysical and law ph., synthesis of Thomist and Scotist ph.,w. »Metaphysical Disputations«, »Of the Law«}:
@ New Advent,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Pages

Cesare Cremonini, 1550-1631, {Italian radical Aristotelian ph., contra Galileo, used as figure Simplicio in Galileo's »Two Systems« }:
@ Wikipedia

(Heinrich Khunrath), c.1560-1605, {alchemist, w. »Amphitheatrum Sapientiae Aeternae« (Amphitheater of Eternal Wisdom)}:
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Francis Bacon, 1561-1626, {pioneer in methodology of modern science, w. »Essays«, »Novum Organum«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Alfred Weber’s ‘History of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ Luminarium Project,
@ Biographies, The Philosophers,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Bacon_(philosopher)

--------------------
Slika
Galileo Galilei, 1564-1642, { w. »Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems«}:
@ The Galileo Project,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Lucidcafé Library,
@ About.com: inventors,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ New Advent,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(Christopher Marlowe), 1564-1593, {English playwright and poet, w. »The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus«}:
@ Perseus Project,
@ Luminarium Project,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Wikipedia

(William Shakespeare), 1564-1616:
@ The Complete Works of William Shakespeare,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Sacred Texts,
@ Wikipedia

Slika Marie de Gournay, 1565-1645:
@ pinn.net

Tommaso Campanella, 1568-1639, {anti-Scholastic, proto-Descartes cogito, w. »Città del Sole« (The City of the Sun)}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ The Galileo Project,
@ Alfred Weber’s ‘History of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

(Johannes Kepler), 1571-1630, {laws of planetary motion, w. »The Harmony of the World«}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ The History of Computing Project,
@ About.com: inventors,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(John Donne), 1572-1631, {English love and metaphysical poet, w. »Of the Progress of the Soul«, »Divine Poems«}:
@ Luminarium Project,

Jakob Boehme, 1575-1624, {'Philosophus teutonicus', Lutheran mystic, panteist, w. »The Way to Christ«}:
@ erols.com,
@ members.aol.com

(Roberto de Nobili), 1577-1656, {Italian Jesuit in India, adaptation methods of missionary work }
@ Wikipedia

(William Harvey), 1578-1657, {physiologist, mechanical theory of circulation of blood}:
@ Humanistic Texts

Hugo Grotius, 1583-1645, {moral ph., founder of international law, w. »The Law of War and Peace«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury, c.1583-1648, {on deist line to 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, w. »On Truth«}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Luminarium Project,
@ Wikipedia

(Cornelis Jansen), 1585-1638, {jansenism – hardcore Augustinianism, contra-Jesuits (''neo-Pelagians''), w. »Augustinus«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Pages

(cardinal Richelieu), 1585-1642, {patron of literature, founder of French Academy}:
@ New Adwent,
@ Wikipedia

Uriel Acosta, c.1585-1640, {converted ex-Marani Jewish rationalist, accused of atheism, influence on Spinoza}:
@ Uriel Acosta Project,
@ Wikipedia

Joachim Jungius, 1587-1657, {German math. and ph., reformer of Aristotelian logic}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews

--------------------
Slika
Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679, {w. »Leviathan«}:
@ Bartleby Bookstore,
@ Luminarium Project,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Alfred Weber’s ‘History of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Oregon State University,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(Marin Mersenne), 1588-1648, {French math., arranger of Cartesian correspondense circle, founder of French Academy, contra Neo-Platonist occultism}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, 1591-1655, {Jewish scientist and ph. of nature}:
@ Jewish Encyclopedia,
@ Wikipedia


John Amos Comenius [Jan Komensky], 1592-1670, {Czech ph. and theo., educational theory, w. »Didactica magna«, »Orbis Pictus« }:
@ Piaget on Comenius,
@ Wikipedia

Pierre Gassendi, 1592-1655 {Fr. ph., math, reviver of Epicureanism, anti-Aristotelan, contra Neo-Platonist occultism}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Oregon State University,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

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