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OdgovorNapisal/-a Hinko_Gnito » 26.11.08 17:35:38

THE ANCIENTS - GREECE:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

History Philosophy Informative:
545 BCE: Persian conquest of Ionia, shift of philosophy form Ionia to Magna Graecia;
450 BCE: democratic rebelion in Magna Graeca had made harsh times for Pythagoreans, which withdrew to Tarentum or Greek mainland;
430 BCE: Anaxagoras expelled from Athens;
400 BCE: Pythagoreans made off with politics – this era's generation of Pythagoreans had made break through in math and released it into public circulation;
390 BCE: Plato visited Tarentum which was under Archyntas leadership;
387 BCE: founded Academy
365 BCE: just another Plato's visit of Tarentum;
350 BCE: remants of Pythagoreans were absorbed by Academy;


PRESOCRATICS:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ ISCID Encyclopedia of Science and Philosophy,
@ Vorländer’s Geschichte der Philosophie

(Homer), 8/7th.cent.BCE:
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Sacred Texts,
@ Wikipedia

(Hesiod), 8th.cent. BCE, {credited for »Theogony«}:
@ Sacred Texts,
@ Wikipedia

(Alcman), 7th.cent. BC, {cosmological poet} *

------------------------------

(Solon), c.638-c.559, {@ 7 (or 10) Sages}:
@ Quotations Page

(Cleobulus of Lind), c.600, {7 (or 10) Sages}:
@ Quotations Page,
@ Wikipedia

(Chilon of Sparta), c.600, {7 (or 10) Sages} *

(Myson), c. 600, {7 (or 10) Sages} *

--------------------
Slika
Thales of Milet, 624-545, {Water as the source of all things, 7 (or 10) Sages}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(Pittacus of Mitilene), c.650-c.570, {7 (or 10) Sages, possibly influence on Pherecydes}:
@ Quotations Page

(Bias of Priene), c.600, {7 (or 10) Sages}:
@ Quotations Page

(Epimenides), c. 580, {7 (or 10) Sages} *

(Anacharsis), c. 560, {7 (or 10) Sages} *

(Perinader of Corinth), c.600, {7 (or 10) Sages}:
@ Quotations Page

--------------------
Slika
Anaximander, 610-546, {Apeiron}:
@ The Big View
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Pythagoras, c.580-c.500, {abstract Number above material realitiy}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ New Advent,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia,
@ Philosophy Fleet, Forum Frigate

Anaximenes, c.588-524, {Aer as the source of all things}:
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Pherecydes of Syros, c.550, {cosmology mythographer, influence on Pythagoras, w. »Pentemychos«}:
@ Wikipedia

Xenophanes of Colophon, c.570-c.478, {founder of the Eleatic school, satirized the polytheistic beliefs}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Heraclitus of Ephesus, c.540-c.475:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Wikipedia

Alcmaeon of Croton, c.500, {Pythagorean, medic}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Parmenides, c.515-470:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Ontology. A Resource Guide for Philosophers,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Anaxagoras of Clazomena, c.500-428, {matter composed of infinite elements}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Zeno of Elea, c.495-c.430, {disciple of Parmenides, logic paradoxes}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Empedocles, c.495-435, {four primal elements: earth, air, fire, and water}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Wikipedia

(Herodotus of Halicarnassus), c.484-c.425BC, {Greek historian, w. »The Histories«}:
@ Wikipedia

(Gorgias), 483-375, {sophist, nihilist}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Protagoras of Abdera, c.480-411, {founder of sophistic school}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Antiphon, c.479-411, {sophist, w. »On truth«}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiphon_(person)

--------------------
Slika
Democritus of Abdera, c.470-370, {early Atomist}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ ISCID Encyclopedia of Science and Philosophy,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Philolaus of Croton, c.470-380, {Pythagorean}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Slika (Aspasia of Miletus), c.470-410:
@ Wikipedia,
@ Die Philosophie Lexikon

Slika Diotima of Manitea, {probably mythical}:
@ The Window Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Cratylus, 5th.cent.BCE {radical Heraclitean}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Diogenes of Apollonia, 5th.cent.BCE, {physicist, air as basic substance}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Prodicus of Ceos, late 5th.cent., {Sophist, grammarian, atheist}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Callicles, 5th.cent., {Sophist, character in Platos 'Gorgias', physis vs. nomos}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Thrasymachus of Halcedon, late 5th.cent., {Sophist, character in Platos 'Gorgias'}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Melissus of Samos, late 5th.cent.:
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Wikipedia

Critias, 460-403, {Sophist}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

(Hippocrates), c.460-c.377, {greatest physician of antiquity}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Wikipedia

Hippias of Elis c.460-???, {Sophist, Encyclopeadist}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Leucippus of Miletus, c.459-c.370, {father of atomism}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Wikipedia

»Dissoi logoi«, writen c.400 BC *

----------------------------------------

THE GOLDEN AGE OF ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY:
@ Vorländer’s Geschichte der Philosophie

Slika
Socrates, c.469-399, {cental figure in ancient ph., overrated by Platon (?)}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ btinternet.com,
@ socrat.html,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ ISCID Encyclopedia of Science and Philosophy,
@ Biographies, The Philosophers,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia,
@ Philosophy Fleet, Forum Frigate,
@ Xenophon-Memorabilia

(Thucydides), c.460-c.399, {w. »History of the Peloponnesian War«}:
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Antisthenes, c.455-c.360, {disciple of Socrates, founder of Cynic anti-school, pro-nominalist}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(Isocrates), 436-338, {Athenian orator and teacher, w. »Panegyricus«}:
@ Wikipedia

Aristippus the Elder, c.435-c.355, {disciple of Socrates, founder of the Cyrenaic school}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Euclides of Megara, 430-360, {disciple of Socrates, founder of Megarian school, return to Eleatic metaphysics}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Wikipedia

==========================

Slika
Plato, c.427-347:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Plato Dialogues,
@ GPA,
@ Sacred Texts,
@ Platonica,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ Biographies, The Philosophers,
@ New Advent,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ The Informal Education Page,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia,
@ Philosophy Fleet, Forum Frigate

plato-parmenides,
plato-sophist


==========================

Archytas of Tarentum, c.400, {Pythagorean}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Ekphantos of Syracuse, c.400, {Pythagorean}:
@ Wikipedia

Xenophon, c.427-c.350, {military adventurer, historian and ph. writer, source for Socrates, w. »Anabasis«, »Memoirs«, »The Education of Cyrus«}:
@ classicreader.com,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(Theaetetus), c.417-369, {Academic, math.}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Phaedo of Elis, c.415- ?, {disciple of Socrates, founded a school in Elis}:
@ NNDB biographies

Speusippus, c.410-r.348-339, {first leader and scholar of Academy, more Pythagorean than Platonist}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Diogenes of Sinope, c.410-c.322,{Cynic}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Biographies, The Philosophers,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia,
@ Philosophy Fleet, Forum Frigate

(Eudoxus of Cnidus), 408-355, {Platonist, school of Cyzicus, center for astron. and math.}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Xenocrates of Halcedon, c.395-r.339-314, {second leader and scholar of Academy, elimination of dialectic in favor astrological religion}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Heraclides Ponticus, c.390-310, {Academian, math., perhaps an early heliocentrist}:
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

==========================

Slika
Aristotle of Stagira, 384-322:
@ GPA,
@ Non-contradiction,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Biographies, The Philosophers,
@ New Advent,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ baylor.edu,
@ tripod.com,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ The History of Computing Project,
@ The Informal Education Page,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ The History of Economic Thought Website,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia,
@ Philosophy Fleet, Forum Frigate

aristotle-categories,
being-qua-being


-
Zadnjič spremenil Hinko_Gnito, dne 07.01.09 21:22:14, skupaj popravljeno 2 krat.

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OdgovorNapisal/-a Hinko_Gnito » 26.11.08 17:36:03

HELENISM: :
@ Vorländer’s Geschichte der Philosophie

History Philosophy Informative:
387 BCE: as we say – Plato founded Academy
in Athens. It keeps its formality of education until 529;
348 BCE: after mathemathical school Cyzicus collapsed, they were drifted into Seusippus Academy (mathematicans takeover of Academy);
335 BCE: in response Aristotle founded Lyceum (or Peripatos) in Athens;
323 BCE: death of Alexander the Great, bad days for Aristotle and his Lyceum;
307 BCE: Epicur founded his school in Athens (Epicurean Garden);
302 BCE: Zeno of Citium founded his Stoic school in Athens. Lyceum, Garden and Stoa lasted approx. 200 years;
300-290 BCE: Ptolemy the I. founded Library at Alexandria, his son Ptolemy the II. expanded it;
300 BCE: Euclid systematized geometry;
300-250 BCE: Hippocratic medical schools of Cos and Cnidus migrated to Alexandria, linking up with Aristotelians;
287 BCE: with death of Lyceum leader and Aristotles friend Theophrastus had begun saga of Aristotle works. They've been rotten for some years in some moisture cellars;
265 BCE: under Arcesilaus of Pitana Academy shifted towards skepticism. On the other side: jobless mathematicians joined remants of Lyceum. That had made first – but not to exceeded – alliance between math and natural scinces, especially astronomy;
220-200 BCE: Attalus I, king of Pergamum, founded library;
133 BCE: Attalus III, having no heirs, bequeathed kingdom of Pergamum and its Library to Rome;
Pergamum Library



×××××××××××××××××××××××××

Stilpo of Megara, c.380-c.300, {Megarian, pionering methods in logic}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Encyclopedia Britannica,
@ Wikipedia

Anaxarch of Abdera, c.380-c.330, {Atomist, Skeptic}:
@ Die Philosophie Lexikon

Aristoxenus of Tarent, 4th.cent.BCE, {Peripatetic}:
@ Wikipedia

Eudemus of Rhodes, 4th.cent.BCE, {Peripatetic}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Die Philosophie Lexikon

Slika
(Euclid of Alexandria), 4th.cent.BCE, {w. »Elements«}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Crates of Thebes, 4th.cent.BCE, {Cynic,
student of Diogenes of Sinope, teacher of Zeno}:
@ Wikipedia

Eubulides of Miletus, 4th.cent., {Megarian, pionering methods in logic, anti-Aristotelian}:
@ Wikipedia

Theodorus of Cyrene, 4th.cent., {Cyrenaic}:
@ Wikipedia

Anneceris, 4th.cent.BCE, {Cyrenaic} *

(Euhemeros), late4th.cent.B.C., {Greek mythographer, 'gods are humans of past importance'}:
@ Wikipedia

Diodorus Cronus, late 4th.cent., {Megarian, time atomism}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Theophrastus of Mitilena, c.372-c.287, {co-founder of Lyceaum, Peripatetic, botanist, w. »Characters«, »On the Senses«}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Pyrrho of Elis, c.360-272, {radical sceptic}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Polemo, c.350-r.314-270, {leader and scholar of Elder Academy}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

(Demetrius of Phaleron), c.350-280, {politican, strong ties with Lyceum leaders} *

--------------------
Slika
Epicurus of Samos, c.342-270:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Internet Infidels,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Fleet, Forum Frigate,
@ Biographies, The Philosophers,
@ Vorländer’s Geschichte der Philosophie,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(Praxagoras), c.340-280, {medic}:
@ Wikipedia

(Herophilos), c.335-280, {Alexandrian anatomist}:
@ in2greece.com

--------------------
Slika
Zeno of Citium, 334-262, {founder of Stoa}:
@ Window on Cyprus,
@ Marxists Archive,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Strato of Lampsacus, c.320-(287)-269, {3rd Peripatetic leader, theologian}:
@ alcott.net

Crates of Athens, ?-r.271-268, {leader and scholar of Elder Academy}:
@ Wikipedia

Hegesias of Cyrene, c.320-c.280BC., {Cyrenaic, pleasue does not give itself}:
@ Wikipedia

Arcesilaus of Pitana, 316-r.265-241, {leader and scholar of Academy, Skeptic, Agnostic}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Timon of Phlius, c.315-c.225, {student of Pyrrho, systematized scepticism}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Philosophy Pages

(Aristarchus of Samos), c.310-c.250, {astron., proponent of hielocentrism}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews

(Callimachus), c.305-c.240BC, {Greek poet}:
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar

(Erasistratus), c.304-c.250, {Alexandrian anatomist}:
@ Wikipedia

Cleanthes of Troad, 301-232, {Stoic, pantheist}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Phanias, c. 300-?, {commentator on Aristotle}:
@ NNDB biographies

(Apollonius of Perga), c.300-c.200, {applied geometric models to the movement of planets}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Ariston of Chios, 3rd.cent., {Stoic, logic}:
@ Wikipedia

(Ctesibius), 3rd cent BCE, {mechanics inovator, improved Egyptian water clock} *

Slika Hipparchia the Cynic, 3rd cent.BCE.:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Metrocles, 3rd cent.BCE:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Menippus of Gadar, 3rd.cent.BCE, {Cynic}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
(Archimedes), 287-212, {w. »Geometrical Solutions«}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ About.com: inventors,
@ The Sand Reckoner of Archimedes
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

----------------------
Slika
Chrysippus, 280-207, {Stoic systematizer, logic of propositions, contra-Arcesilaus}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(Eratosthenes), c.275-r.234-194BC, {leader of Alexan. Lib., math., astron., geographer}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Carneades, c.214-129, {leader and scholar of Younger Academy, Skeptic, rhetor}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(Polybius), c.200-c.118, {historian}:
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ fsnet.co.uk,
@ Wikipedia

(Hipparchus), c.190-126BC, {astron., influence on Ptolemy}:
@ Hyper History,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews

Panaetius of Rhodes, c.185-c.110, {Peripatetic, Middle Stoicism school from Rhodes, teacher of Posidonius, influence on Rome ruling elite and Cicero}:
@ Wikipedia

Diogenes of Babylon, 2nd.cent.BCE, {Stoic}:
@ Encyclopedia Britannica

Zeno of Sidon, 2nd.cent.BCE, {Eclectic, Epicurean, non-Euclidean geometry}:
@ Wikipedia

Philo of Larissa, c.140-c.80, {leader and scholar of Younger Academy, reconciled rethorics and philosophy}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

(Heraclides of Tarentum), 1st cent. BCE, {emperical medic}:


_____________________________


Philosophy in Roman Period

History Philosophy Informative:
86 BCE: Athens was saked by the Roman army. In addition Athenian schools disappered (like Peripatetics) or get misearble poor in intellectual sense (like skeptic Academy), Stoic school of Rhodes was the last intellectual center outside Roman hegemony;



LATE ROMAN REPUBLIC

Posidonius of Syria, c.135.BC-c.50 BC, {Stoic school at Rhodes, revives Stoicism in scientific version}:
@ Wikipedia

Antiochus of Ascalon, c.130.BC-68, {scholar of Middle Platonism, anti-Skeptic, syncretize Plato with Stoicism}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Marcus Terentius Varro, 116-27.BC, {Eclectic, Stoic}:
@ Wikipedia

Philodemus of Gadara, c.110-c.40.BC, {epigrammic poet, Epicurean ph.}
@ Wikipedia,
@ 1911 Encyclopedia

--------------------
Slika
Marcus Tullius Cicero, 106.BC-43.BC, {rhetor, Eclectic, w. »De Inventione« (About the composition of arguments), w. »Laelius de Amicitia« (Laelius On Friendship)}:
@ Bartleby Bookstore,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Biographies, The Philosophers,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Alexander the Polyhistor, c.105.BC-35.BC, {Pythagorean, Eclectic}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

(Asclepiades of Bythynia), 1st.centBC, {medic, Epicurean}:
@ Wikipedia

Aenesidemus of Knossos, 1st.cent.BCE, {Third skeptical school, ten modes of scepticism}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Titus Lucretius Carus, c.94.BC-55.BC, {revives Epicureanism, Eclectic, w. »On the Nature of Things«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Wikipedia


-
Zadnjič spremenil Hinko_Gnito, dne 07.01.09 21:22:54, skupaj popravljeno 1 krat.

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OdgovorNapisal/-a Hinko_Gnito » 26.11.08 17:36:32

AGE OF IMPERIAL ROME

History Philosophy Informative:
BTW: Academy had no longer existed as organisation, but merely as fellowship of syncretizers;
176 CE: Marcus Aurelius established four chairs in Athens: for Platonic, Aristotelan, Stoic and Epicurean philosophy; annual salary 10.000 drahmas; in century later, position fixed at Platonists, bad years for philosophers, rich for grammarians and rhetors (Neosophists);
200: the training of Christian priest became increasingly formalized;
250: first large scale law ordered prosecutions of Christians under caesar Decius;
311: Constantines victory and…
337: … Christianity as official religion;
400: after triumpf of Christians pagan philosophers made last effort to revive at least one ancient philosophical school. It was – Platonism. Academy formaly reestablished.
529: caesar Justinian banned pagan philosophy in the Empire.



(Marcus Vitruvius Pollio), 2.nd half.of 1st.cent.BCE, {Roman architect and engineer, influence on Renaissance}:
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Humanistic Texts

(Strabo), 58.BC-22, {Greek geographer and historian, stoc}:
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Philo of Alexandria,c.20.BC-c.50, {Judean scholar of Middle Platonism, IHVH=Zeus, allegorical interp. of Pentateuch}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(St. Paul of Tarsus), 1st.cent., {apostle of Church}:
@ New Advent

Seneca (Lucius Annaeus Seneca Minor), c.4.BC-65, {Platonic, Stoic, w. »Epistulae Morales«}:
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia,
@ Philosophy Fleet, Forum Frigate

1 BC
-------------------------------------
1 CE

Apollonius of Tyana, 2-98, {Neopythagorean, Mystic}:
@ Wikipedia

(Heron of Alexandria), c.20-62, {Greek math.}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ The History of Computing Project

»Book of Wisdom«, 60BC-30AD, {atributed to king Salamon, wrote by unknown member of Jewish diasopra in Alexandria, influence of Helenism}:
@ Jewish Encyclopedia,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Pliny the Elder, c.23-79, {Roman writer and Encyclopedist}:
@ Wikipedia

Andronic of Rhodes, 1st.cent., {editor of Aristotle's manuscripts} *

Musonius Rufus, 1st.cent., {Stoic, influence on Epictetus} *

(St. John the Evangelist), ?-101, {apostle of Church }:
@ New Advent

--------------------
Slika
Epictetus of Hierapolis, c.35-c.135, {late Stoic, w. »Encheiridion«}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Discourses,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia,
@ Philosophy Fleet, Forum Frigate

(Flavius Josephus), c.37-c.100, {Jewish-Roman historian, w. »The Jewish War«}:
@ Wikipedia

Dio Chrysóstomos of Pursa, 40-112, {rhetor, Stoic}:
@ Encyclopedia Britannica

Plutarch of Charioneia, c.45-c.120, {historian, scholar of Middle Platonism, w. »Lives«, »Moralia«}:
@ Wikipedia
(Pliny the Younger), 62-113:
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Ptolemy (Klaúdios Ptolemaios), c.85-170, {astronomer, epistemic ph., w. »Almagest«, »On the Criterion and Commanding-Faculty«}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ The Galileo Project,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Wikipedia

Favorinus, c.85-165, {rhetor, Cynic, Skeptic}:
@ Wikipedia





RISE OF CHRISTIAN INTELECTUAL INFLUENCE
@ Vorländer’s Geschichte der Philosophie


St. Justin Martyr (or Philosopher), ok.100-ok.165 {one of the earliest apologists of the Christian church}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

(Marcion of Sinope), c.100-160, {radical dualist Gnostic, anti-Semite}:
@ Wikipedia

Calvenus Taurus, c.100, (pro-Aristotle, anti-Stoic} *

Aulus Cornelius Celsus, 1.half.2nd.cent., {Platonist, anti-Christian/Gnostic, anti-Origen}:
@ Bartleby Bookstore,
@ Wikipedia

Tatian the Assyrian, c.110-80, {early Christian writer, anti-philosopher, disciple of St. Justin, w. »Address to the Greeks«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

(Gaius), c.110-c.180, {Roman jurist, w. »Institutes«} *

(Basilides of Syria), 117-138, {Gnostic}:
@ Wikipedia

Lucian of Samostata, c.120-80, {rhetor, pop-philosopher, Epicurean/Eclectic, w. »Dialogue of the Gods«}:
@ Wikipedia

(Valentinus), 2nd.cent., {Gnostic, occultist}:
@ gnosis.org,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Athenagoras, 2nd.cent., {Ch. ph. and Apologist, defended Christians in front o0f Marcus Aurelius}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Herodes Atticus, 2nd. cent, (Platonist, contra eclectic} *

--------------------
Slika
Marcus Aurelius, 121-r.161-80, {Roman Emperor, last influential Stoic, w. »The Meditations«}:
@ DPA,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ classics.mit.edu,
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

»Corpus Hermeticum« *

Alcinous, 2nd.cent., {w. »Handbook of Platonism«} *

Philostratus, 2nd.cent., {Neopythagorean, rethor}:
@ Wikipedia

Demonax ?, 2nd.cent., {Stoic}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Numenius of Apamea, 2nd.cent., {scholar of Middle Platonism, ''god is good, matter evil''}:
@ Wikipedia

Apuleius of Madaura, c.125-200, {scholar of Middle Platonism}:
@ Wikipedia

Galen of Perga, 129-c.210, {last eminent physician, Aristotelian, w. »On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato«}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

(Judah Ha-Nasi), c.135-c.220, {Jewish scholar, compiled mishnah}:
@ Jewish Gates,
@ Jewish Virtual Library


Saint Irenaeus, c.140-c.202, {Father of Ch., anti-Gnostic}:
@ New Advent

Clement of Alexandria, c.150-215, {Father of Ch., actualizes Philo Judeas, teacher of Origen}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

(Tertullian), c.160-c.220, {initiated Latin vocabulary into Christian theology, anti-phil, anti-Gnostic, w. »Against Marcion«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Sextus Empiricus, 2nd-3th.cent?, {compiled Skeptic teachings, w. »Outlines of Pyrrhonism«}:
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ angelfire.com,
@ Wikipedia

(Hyppolytus), c.170-c.235, {Ch. theol.}:
@ New Advent

Alexander of Aphrodisias, c.200, {commentator on Aristotle, w. »On the Soul«, »On Intellect«}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Jewish Encyclopedia,
@ Wikipedia

Diogenes of Oenoanda, c.200, {Eclectic, Epicurean}:
@ Wikipedia

(Samuel of Nehardea), 2-3rd.cent.,{Jewish scholar}:
@ Wikipedia

Ammonios Saccas, c.175-242, {early Neo-Platonist school, Eclectic}:
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Wikipedia

Origen of Alexandria, c.185-c.254, {Old Testament excels pagan philosophers, w. »Contra Celsus«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

Diogenes Laertius, 3rd.cent., {doxographer, main source on Epicur, w. »Lives of the Philosophers«}:
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
Plotinus, c.205-270, {founder of the Neoplatonism, w. »Enneads«}:
@ classics.mit.edu,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

(Diophantus), 3rd cent, {Greek mathematician, 'father' of algebra, w. »Arithmetica«}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews

St. Victorinus of Pettau, 2nd.half of 3rd.cent, {Church writer, w. »Adversus omnes haeresas«, »De fabrica mundi«}:
@ New Advent

Cassius Longinus, c.213-273, {Neo-Platonist, rethor}:
@ Wikipedia

Porphyry of Tyre, c.233-309, {Neo-Platonist, exemplified Plotinus hierarchy of emanations, defence of vegetarianism, w. »Isagoge« (Introduction)}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia,
@ Philosophy Fleet, Forum Frigate

Iamblichus of Chalcis, 242-327, {Syrian Neo-Platonist, mixed with Gnosticism, Egyptian mysteries and Chaldean Oracles, w. »On the Egyptian Mysteries«, »On the Pythagorean Life«}:
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

(Arius), 256-336, {denied the full divinity of Jesus Christ}:
@ New Advent,
@ Encyclopedia of Orient,
@ Wikipedia

Eusebius of Caesarea, c.264-c.339, {theol., Ch. hist., anti-Porphyry, w. »Preparation of the Gospel«}:
@ Ecumenical Patriarchte,
@ New Advent,
@ University of Chicago - Medieval Traditions,
@ Wikipedia

St. Athanasius the Great, 296-373, {Doctor and Father of Ch., pro-Nicean, anti-Arian}:
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

Arnobius, 4th.cent.{Roman rhetor and Ch. Apologist}:
@ New Advent

Marius Victorinus, 4th.cent., {Christian Neoplatonist, influence on Augustine}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Themistius, c.317-c.388, {Middle Platonist Aristotle commentator}:
@ Wikipedia

St. Basil the Great, 329-379, {Father and Doctor of Ch., Cappadocian Father, Platonist}:
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ University of Chicago - Medieval Traditions,
@ Wikipedia

St. Gregory of Nazianzus, c.329-89, {Father and Doctor of Ch., Cappadocian Father}:
@ Ecumenical Patriarchte,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ New Advent,
@ Boston Collaborative Encyclopedia of Western Theology,
@ Wikipedia

Diodorus of Tarsus, c.330-c.390:
@ New Advent

(Julian the Apostate), c.331-r.361-363, {Roman Emperor, failure for Christians}:
@ mlahanas.de,
@ Wikipedia

Gregory of Nyssa, 335-394, {Father and Doctor of Ch., Cappadocian Father, mystic, w. »Why there are not three Gods«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Boston Collaborative Encyclopedia of Western Theology,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Wikipedia

(Apollinaris of Laodicea), 4th.cent, {Christ with divine mind only but not a human one}:
@ New Advent

anonym. Jewish mystic, 4th.cent., {w. »Hekhalot Hymns«}:
@ Poetry Chaikhana

Slika Sosipatra, 4th cent., {occultist} *

St. Ambrose of Mediolan, c.339-397, {Father and Doctor of Ch., anti-Arian}:
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Wikipedia

Evagrius Ponticus, 346-399, {Christian thologian, accused of gnosticism}:
@ New Advent,
@ Ecumenical Patriarchte,
@ Wikipedia

Saint Jerome (Eusebius Hieronymus), c.347-c.420, {Father and Doctor of Ch., translator of Vulgata}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Theodore of Mopsuestia, c.350-428, {pro-Aristotelian Church theologian and otrodox exeget of Bible}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

=======================

Slika

St. Augustine (Avrelius Augustinus) of Hippo, 354-430, {Doctor and Father of Ch., systematized ph. with Ch. theo., w. »The Confessions«, »De Trinitate«, »De Civitate Dei«}:
@ upenn.edu,
@ New Advent - biography,
@ New Advent - teaching,
@ New Advent - bibliography,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ Boston Collaborative Encyclopedia of Western Theology,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia,
@ Philosophy Fleet, Forum Frigate

========================

John Chrysostom) of Antiochia, c.354-407, {Father and Doctor of Ch., Origenist}:
@ Ecumenical Patriarchte,
@ New Advent,
@ Projekt Gutenberg

Slika Hypatia of Alexandria, c.370-415, {Neo-Platonist woman killed by ch. mob}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ The Window Philosophy
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia

Synesius of Cyrene, c.370-414, {Neo-Platonist, later Christian}:
@ New Advent

St. Cyril of Alexandria, c.376-444, {Doctor of Ch.}:
@ New Advent,
@ mlahanas.de,
@ Wikipedia

Nemesius, 4/5th.cent., {w. »On the Nature of Man«}:
@ Wikipedia

(Pelagius), c.400, {Christian thinker, independece of free will from the grace of God}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

(Nestorius), ?-451:
@ New Advent,
@ LookLex Encyclopaedia

Martianus Capella, c.400-439, {Platonist, encyc.}:
@ New Advent

Proclus, c.410-85, {Neo-Platonist, influence on Pseudo-Dionysius, w. »The Elements of Theology«, »On Divine Names«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Syrianus, 5th cent., {Neo-Platonist, Aristotelan}:
@ NNDB biographies

Ammonius Hermiae, 435/445-517/526, {Neo-Platonist commentator on Aristotle, math., astron., student of Proclus}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Wikipedia

Aeneas of Gaza, c.450-543:
@ New Advent

Procopius of Gaza, 465-529:
@ Wikipedia

--------------------
Slika
pseudo-Dionysius Areopagite, 5/6th.cent., {Neo-Platonist influence on John of Damascus, Maximus Confessor and Eriugena}:
@ New Advent,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Projekt Gutenberg,
@ pseudo-Dionysius.uk,
@ Poetry Chaikhana,
@ Wikipedia

Leontius Byzantinus, c.475-542:
@ New Advent

-----------------------
Slika
Boethius (Anicius Manilus Severinus Boethius), 480-525, {late neo-Platonist, main influence on the Early Middle Age thought, probably Christian, w. »The Consolation of Philosophy«}:
@ upenn.edu,
@ New Advent,
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Kirjasto Author’s Calendar,
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Philosophy Professor,
@ Philosophy Pages,
@ Wikipedia,
@ Philosophy Fleet, Forum Frigate

Simplicius of Cilicia, 1.half.6th.cent., {Aristotelian-Neoplatonic ph. and polymath, main source of Presocratics}:
@ Mathematics University of St Andrews,
@ Wikipedia

Damascius, c.462-540, {last Neo-Platonist}:
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Wikipedia

(caesar Justinian I. the Great), 483-r.527-565, {his minister Tribonian compilated Roman law}:
@ mlahanas.de,
@ Humanistic Texts,
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

John Philoponus, 490-570, {Ch. ph., rejected Proclus platonism, defended empirical science}:
@ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
@ Die Philosophie Lexikon

(Cassiodorus), c.490-c.585, {w. »History of the Goths«}:
@ upenn.edu,
@ New Advent

(Procopius of Cesarea), c.500-c.565, {Byzantine historian}:
@ Sacred Texts,
@ mlahanas.de

Macrobius, 6th.cent, {w. »Saturnalia«}:
@ NNDB biographies,
@ Wikipedia

St. Anastasius Sinaita, 6th.cent., {Melkite Christian, Church Father, anti-monophysite}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Pope St. Gregory I ('the Great'), c.540-604, {Curch Father, w. »Commentary on Job«, »The Rule for Pastors«}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis), 560-636, {theolgoian, encyclopedist, last of Latin Church Fathers, w. »Etymologiae«, »The shape of the Earth«, »On the Catholic Faith against the Jews«}:
@ New Advent,
@ University of Chicago - Medieval Traditions
@ Wikipedia

(St. John Climacus), c.570-649, {Melikte Christian, classification of sins}:
@ New Advent

(St. Maximus Confessor), c.580-662, {Byzant. theo., preserved Neo-Platonism, anti-monophysite and anti-monothelite, w. »Scholia« (Commentary Dionysius Areopagite)}:
@ New Advent,
@ Wikipedia

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